دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی
واحد علوم و تحقیقات هرمزگان
پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته زبان انگلیسی
گرایش : آموزش زبان انگلیسی
عوامل ضدانگیزشی موثر در کسب مهارت صحبت کردن زبان انگلیسی دانش آموزان دبیرستانی بندرعباس ازدیدگاه معلمان و زبان آموزان
دانشیار دکترعلی رحیمی
دکتر مهرداد زرافشان
(در فایل دانلودی نام نویسنده موجود است)
Table of Contents Page
Chapter One: Introduction
- Overview . 3
1.2. Statement of the Problem4-6
1.3. Significance of the Study6-7
- 4.Purpose of the Study.7
1.5. Research Questions7-8
- 6.Definitions of key terms.8
Chapter two: Literature review
- 2. Motivation10-12
2.2.1. The history of L2 motivation research.13
184.108.40.206. The social psychological conceptualization13-8
220.127.116.11. The cognitive/situated conceptualization18-19
18.104.22.168.1. The self-determination theory19-22
22.214.171.124.2. Attribution theory22-23
126.96.36.199. The process-oriented period.23-25
2.3. Recent conceptions of L2 motivation25-26 2.3.1.Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self-system26-27
188.8.131.52. Ideal L2 self.27
184.108.40.206. Ought-to L2 self27
220.127.116.11. L2 learn28
2.3.2. Motivational self- regulation28
2.3.3. Teacher-controlled motivational strategies29
2.3.4. Task motivation31-32
2.3.5. Ushiodo model.32
2.3.6. The role of motivational thinking33-35
2.4. The importance of motivation in second or foreign language learning35-36
2.5. Demotivation and amotivation36
2.6. The effect of demotivating factors on language learning37-40
2.7.1. Theory of speaking.41
18.104.22.168. Bygate’s theory41
22.214.171.124. Harmer’s theory41-42
2.7.2. Production skills42-43
2.7.3. Interaction skills43-44
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching and Speaking Activities.44-45
2.8.1. Organizational forms45-46
- 8.1.1. Whole-class teaching (Lockstep method)46
126.96.36.199. Group work47
188.8.131.52. Pair work.47
2.9. Demotivating factors influencing speaking skill.48
Chapter 3: Method
3.1. Research design50.
3.2. Qualitative phase.50
3.2.2. Data collection instruments.51
3.2.3. Data analysis procedure51
- 3. Quantitative phase51
- 3. 2. Participants51-52
- 3.3. Data collection instruments52
- 3.4. Data analysis procedure52
- 4. Procedures52
3.4.1 Qualitative phase52-54
3.4.2. Quantitative phase54-56
Chapter 4: Results and discussion
4.1. Qualitative phase.58
4.1.1. Factors leading to Iranian high school students’ demotivation for L2 speaking practice and progress as perceived by students58
4.1.1 .1 Teachers’ inadequate language knowledge and teaching style.59-61
184.108.40.206. Unsuitable learning materials.61-62.
220.127.116.11. Lack of technological equipment.63
18.104.22.168. Non-communicative method63-64
4.1.2. Factors leading to Iranian high school students’ demotivation for L2 speaking practice and progress as perceived by teachers64-65
22.214.171.124. Teachers’ inadequate language knowledge and teaching style65-66
126.96.36.199. Learner characteristics67-68
188.8.131.52. Unsuitable learning materials.68
184.108.40.206. Lack of technological equipment.69
220.127.116.11. Non-communicative method69-70
4.1.3. Similarities and differences in students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the demotivating factors regarding students’ practice of L2 speaking70-71
4.2. The Quantitative Phase.71
4.2.1. Factor analysis72-76
4.3. Reliability of the instrument.76
Chapter 5: Conclusion and implication of the study
5.1. Summary of findings.87
5.2. Pedagogical implications and applications88-90
5.3. Suggestions for further studies.90
5.4. Limitations of the Study91
5.5. Delimitation of the Study.91
Abstract in Persian110
List of tables
Table2. 1. From extrinsic to intrinsic motivation in educational institutions (Brown, 2000, p.79)21
Table4.1. Rotated component matrix72
Table4.2. The factors structure of ”Foreign Language Speaking Demotivation”( FLSD).75
Table4.4. Mann-Whitney U Test; Negative Attitude as a Demotivating Factor.78
Table4.6. Mann-Whitney U Test; Lack of Technology in Classroom79
Table4.7.Mann-Whitney U Test; Lack of adequate teaching materials80
Table4.8. Mann-Whitney U Test; Unfavorable Classroom Environment81
Table4.9. Mann-Whitney U Test; Insufficient Opportunities for Speaking81
List of Graphs
Figure 2. 1. Gardner’s integrative model (1997, cited in Dornyei, 2001, p. 50)13
Figure 2.2. Tremblay and Gardner’s model (1995, p. 510)18
Figure2. 3. Teacher L2 motivational teaching practice (Dörnyei, 2005, p. 112)30
Figure2. 4. Ushioda’s model of Future time perspective (FTP) (2001, p. 118).33
Graph4.1. Median Scores on Demotivating Factors82
List of Acronyms
AMTB: Attitude Motivation Test battery
EFL: English as a Foreign Language
ELT: English Language Teaching
ESL: English as a Second Language
L1: First Language
L2: Second Language
TESOL: Teaching English to Speakers of other Language.
Motivation is an issue which has been the focus of attention in the field of second language (L2) learning and teaching for a rather long time (e.g., Gardner, 1985; Muhonen, 2004; Scarcella & Oxford, 1992). However, its opposite side, i.e. demotivation, has drawn researchers’ serious attention only recently (e.g., Dornyei & Ushioda, 2011, Falout, Elwood, & Hood, 2009, Falout & Maruyama, 2004, Kikuchi, 2009, Sakai & Kikuchi, 2009). What is more unfortunate is that in the context of Iran, this concept has not been explored in more than a few studies (e.g., HeidariSoureshjani & Riahipour (2012). In order to address this gap, the present study was carried out to investigate and compare Iranian EFL teachers’ and learners’ perceptions about demotivating factors with regard to practicing speaking skill in high school. To achieve this goal, 12 Iranian male and female EFL learners and Iranian male and female 12 EFL teachers (male and female) were interviewed. As a result of thematic analysis of the interviews, four themes emerged from students’ and five themes emerged from teachers’ data. The themes common between the two groups were teachers’ inadequate language knowledge and teaching style, unsuitable learning materials, lack of technological equipment, and non-communicative methods. The additional theme which emerged from teachers’ interviews was learner characteristics. These findings along with the researcher’s review of the related literature were used to develop a questionnaire to explore Iranian L2 students’ and teachers’ perceptions of demotivating factors with regard to speaking practice in high school in a wider scope. The questionnaire was administered to 150 Iranian male and 150 female EFL learners and 40 male and 40 female teachers. To validate the questionnaire, the researcher conducted principal components analysis with varimax rotation. The personal and external factors which emerged were negative attitude toward learning L2, teacher’s inadequate competence and performance, lack of technological facilities in classroom, lack of adequate teaching materials, unfavorable classroom climate, and insufficient opportunities for speaking practice. The Mann-Whitney test was run to probe any similarities and differences between students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the six factors which lead to Iranian high school students’ demotivation for L2 speaking practice and progress. Both groups have similar perceptions about how much impact of teachers’ inadequate competence and performance and competence on learners’ motivation to practice speaking. Compared to teachers, students put significantly higher emphasis on the effects of their negative attitude to language learning and speaking on their demotivation regarding speaking practice and the other factors emphasized by teachers significantly more than by students regarding its contribution to students’ demotivation regarding speaking practice. The pedagogical implications and applications of these findings as well as some suggestions for further research are discussed.
Key words: Demotivation, motivation, speaking skill, EFL high school learners’ perceptions, EFL high school teachers’ perceptions.
There are diverse factors that play an important role in the process of language learning and language teaching. Motivation is a major one and is usually defined as
an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior. We all know how it feels to be motivated, and to move energetically toward a goal. We also know that it is something like to working hard, even if we are not fascinated by the task (Woolfolk, Winne, & Perry, 2003, p. 354).
Thus, the study of motivation is concerned with what makes someone interested in learning a second language and what keeps them motivated. However, motivation to learn L2 is a complex construct, considering that language is always socially and culturally bound and hence quite different from other school subjects (Students who have higher motivation are more successful and efficient in their learning (Ely, 1986).Many researchers (e.g., Crookes& Schmidt, 1991; Dornyei, 2001a; Oxford, 1996) have investigated how students can be motivated. Among these researchers, Dornyei, in particular, has done extensive research on practical aspects of motivation such as the question of how teachers can help to improve learner motivation in classroom (Dornyei, 2001b).
In addition to factors which increase students’ motivation, there are factors which more likely reduce motivation rather than reinforcing it. Dornyei (2001a) has defined demotivation as “specific external forces that reduce or diminish the motivation basis of a behavior intention or an ongoing action” (p.143). Therefore, a demotivated learner is someone who was once motivated, but has lost his or her interest for some reasons. In the same vein, we can speak of demotives, which are negative counterparts of motives.
Sometimes it is said that demotivation is the same as amotivation, while some scholars like Dornyei, Dci, and Ryan(1985) believe that amotivation is” the relative absence of motivation that is not caused by a lack of initial interest but rather by individual feelings of incompetence and helplessness when faced with the activity”. Accordingly,” amotivation” events are those that occur within the person that signify his or her inability to master some situation or events”(Dornyei, Dci & Ryan, 1985, p.110).
One of the skills that learners might feel unable to develop is speaking, especially in contexts like Iran where speaking practice does not happen much. With regard to the importance of speaking, there are three major reasons for encouraging learners to speak in classrooms. First, speaking activities prepare practice opportunities-chances to practice real life speaking in the classroom. Secondly, speaking tasks in which students tend to use any or all of the language they know provide feedback for both teacher and students. And finally, the more students have opportunities to activate the diverse elements of language they have kept in their brains, the more automatic their use of these elements become. As a result, students gradually become independent language users. This means that they will afford to use words and phrases fluently without very much conscious thought (Harmer, 2008). However, some factors may negatively affect the speaking practice and they may decrease the learners’ motivation to speak in the classroom.
First and foremost, this study seeks to investigate Iranian teachers’ and learners’ ideas about demotivating factors with regard to practicing speaking skill. More precisely, this study is mainly set out to obtain the perspectives of two groups who are involved in the teaching and learning process, namely language teachers and learners, on factors which may negatively influence the speaking performance of language learners. Also, the study serves as an attempt to see the similarities and differences between the students’ and teachers’ perspectives on the subject of the study.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
English language teaching involves the development of four macro skills which are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking is often considered as a neglected skill in foreign language education and accepted as the most complex and difficult skill to acquire (Ur, 1996). Furthermore, Speaking is complex and difficult to learn thoroughly because it includes linguistic and non-linguistic elements such as vocabulary, intonation, articulation, formal and informal language expression, gestures, and so forth. Iran is a country where English is taught as a foreign language, and English learners have little chance to practice English speaking outside the classroom except from online environments and English is taught to learners only in the formal context of classes.
Most teachers tend to use the grammar translation method in their classes in the official system of education in Iran, which clearly ignores the oral skills of speaking and listening in the golden age of communicative approach in language education. Also they tend to use the mother tongue in order to explain repetition and question answer drills. Consequently, students feel few opportunities exist inside or outside the classroom for genuine spoken communication. Moreover, although the learner spend seven years of studying English (three years in junior of high school, three years in high school and 1 year in pre-university level), the majority of learners who graduate from this system are incapable of utilizing the taught material for speaking in real- life situations.
A consequence of this is students’ losing motivation for improving their oral skills .This is a major concern in ELT because motivation plays an important role in learning process and the related literature shows that those students who have higher motivation are more successful and efficient in their learning (e. g., Ely, 1986). It is obvious that motivation and demotivation as well as speaking are very important matters in the process of language learning. In this way, language teachers can become aware of factors which may encourage language learners to speak and also factors which may impede their speaking progress.
Considering the picture presented above of the current conditions in language education system in Iranian schools, it is necessary to conduct a study which helps to progress the speaking skill. Furthermore, many theories have been proposed that explain why students want to learn or what motivates them. Nevertheless, few studies focus on why students are not motivated to learn a second language.
Despite the importance of demotivating factors and severity of the problem of speaking instruction, few insightful profound studies have been carried out on this issue in the context of Iran. Hence, this study makes a deliberate effort to partly fill the existing gap.
تعداد صفحه : 123
قیمت : 14700تومان